Not Just Western Rhetoric

by Dr Davis on April 16, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Wei, Yong-Kang. “Ethos on the Web: A Cross-Cultural Approach.” Writing the Visual: A Practical Guide for Teachers of Composition and Communication. Eds. Carol David and Anne R. Richards. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press, 2008. Print. 146-67.

Two versions of ethos in historical West:
Platonic = individual quality of the rhetoric
artistic = portrayal that creates ethos (as suggested by Aristotle)

Plato’s notion of character, that a person must be true to his/herself in order to learn and share truth… (147)

Platonic ethos = place where language and truth become incarnational (quoting Baumlin 148)

Aristotle says persuasion ought to be based on the language (logic) of the argument, not the ethos of the rhetor. (148) What does that say for us?

Western ethos =/= universal

Chinese ethos shifts from individual to community (148)

“Harmonic rhetoric … speaks to positioning oneself fitly in the world” (Wei 149).
appeal to ethos is historical, abstains from appealing to individual (149)
appeal to authority builds ethos (149)

West: language and reality can be separated
China: language and reality are integrated (149)

Chinese rhetoric makes no appeal/connection to truth (150)
truth is a non-issue in ancient Chinese thought?

classical Chinese rhetoric (metaphor) = bamboo hypertext (150)
“nonlinear, open ended, collective, multi accentual, interactive, and networked” (Wei 151)

ancient Chinese writings appealed to a master, not necessarily written by a master
so writings of the same master would be inconsistent, because not actual author
purpose, subject matter, rhetor, and context differed (151)

significance of bamboo hypertext: authorship moves away from self-structure (Wei 151)

collective authorship = self-effacement (151)

Wei talks about ethos in the visual.

Western rhetoric, ethos is individualistic
Wei says “focusing on creating character or ethos” (Wei 152).
I say, no, on “portraying character or ethos.”

quotes and discusses Buchanan (152)
“projecting the self through artistic manipulation” (Wei 152)
I think Wei is saying portrayal, not truth. However, is portrayal of an aspect, rather than the multi-faceted whole, a lie or simply a limited truth?

Chinese ethos based on non-individual aspects:
Dao (153)

Western rhetoric is a problem for Chinese because “separates the design of an individual work from its environment” (Wei 153).
There is no context for a work? That doesn’t seem right.

“the Western ethos of visual design is clearly seen as something from within” (Wei 153)
Really? Does Wei mean that ethos comes from the design itself?

For China, context is important. A golden temple needs to be created in respect to the space and purpose. (153)
I think this is also true for GOOD Western design.

Chinese visual design requires the minimalization of humanity seen in the work. (154)
“demands ability to … erase traces of human effort” (Wei 154)

Western ethos is individual and belongs to individual. Not so Chinese.
Is this why they don’t recognize copyright?

Chinese art “values how pieces of design should relate to each other and to the surrounding world” (Wei 154).

Chinese and other non-Western “communication relies on the context to deliver messages” (Wei 155) –citing Edward Hall
context delivers message versus rhetorical triangle without context

Western = visually expressive, elaborate (155)
Chinese = simplicity

Chinese design “valued for being integrated with nature and environment” (Wei 155)
Think Arts and Crafts guy who did house falling waters–Frank Lloyd Wright.

Chinese “design does not have to declare itself in full” (Wei 155)

doing less is more (156)

Western ethos is becoming collective online (156).

“Western sites where the creation of ethos relies heavily on the visual appeals of graphics” (Wei 157)
I have seen this in my fyc and business writing classes, when students present their evaluations of bad websites. They often focus on the graphics and visual appeals.

visually overwhelming = individualistic (Western) (158)
white space = calm (Chinese) (159)
gives Screen shots of these

“Western websites are more content-specific” (Wei 161)

“Western websites tend to exhibit a disconnection from the cultural context” (Wei 161). Example: Bud Light site in UK “Whassup” (162)

Multimedia matches Western ethos, is what I got from 164.

Western ethos can USE the cultural, historical, authoritative, but they are less respected. (165)

Questions for comparing/contrasting Chinese and Western websites given on page 166.
(Three sets of questions.)


Rhetoric of Cool: Ch 4 Juxtaposition

by Dr Davis on April 15, 2014

Rice, Jeff. “Juxtaposition.” The Rhetoric of Cool: Composition Studies and New Media.” Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2007. 73-92. Print.

As I was reading the highlights and notes I wrote in the book for this, I kept thinking of the digital presentations my second semester fyc course does. It seemed like juxtaposition would help make those more interesting. I may write about that more later…

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0“Any object, feeling, odor, word, image in juxtaposition with any other object, feeling, word or image will be associated with it” (Burroughs qtd in Rice 73).

“Douglas Engelbart proposed that juxtaposition be the focal point of writing with computers” (Rice 73).

McLuhan thought composition should include juxtaposition, because it promised depth of involvement and expression (Rice 74).

“the idea that disturbances motivate new media writing” (Rice 74)
I noted Lauer’s preference for dissonance here–and many other places in the text.

Kaleidoscope clip ShD orig by Koperczak releasedkaleidoscope approach

We do not want simple. We want interesting. (Rice 76)
Juxtaposition helps create/provide/reveal that.

“Trimbur and George proceed to highlight the field’s declining interest in those elements that comprise communications studies, like media studies” (Rice 77).
We are definitely coming back to this, though.

[standard] research paper results from organization into linear argument (Rice 78)

outline organization contrasts with juxtaposition (Rice 79)

“layers of text and image, may be removed and added to at any given moment within the composing process” (Rice 79)

“The real job of the computer is not retrieval but discovery. Like the human memory, the process of recall is an act of discovery” (McLuhan, Hot and Cool, 294, qtd in Rice 81).

“notions of individual authorship belongs more to premises native to print” (Rice 82)

“New media extends writers’ sense and observations outside of self” (Rice 82)

“composition studies still legitimizes the sequentiality of thought” (Rice 82)

“[in print media] that which cannot be classified or categorized does not belong in the writing” (Rice 83)

“outline’s function is meant to situate invention” (Rice 83)
Really? Wow. Not for me.

“writing proceeds based on that initial vision or goal. Anything not initially conceived as relevant to one’s purpose should be discarded” (Rice 83).
That is not how I think of writing, but I do wonder if that is how my students think of writing. This belief/attitude may be one reason why I am willing to wait for a well-crafted thesis till towards the end of the writing process for a paper, rather than creating a “research question” thesis statement at the beginning. Or, of course, it could be that I misunderstand how crafting a thesis works for other people.

Regarding hypertext, Rice says it is a process that is “meant to forge associations” (83), as opposed to being preplanned.

“the nature of print is closed” (Rice 83)

“the link’s ability to join a variety of authorial positions” (Rice 83)
This caught my attention for T&P reasons. When you create a blog post, then linking others extends your own authority or adds to the ethos with credibility from other sources. I wonder how much of this is useful/usable in the T&P online portfolio.

When I was first reading the quote above, I thought of the students’ digital presentations. Now, I am having trouble remembering why I thought the authorial positions in particular was relevant. I will have to think about that and add it to the discussion on this chapter for digital presentations.

“print-based emphasis on theses or topic sentences” (Rice 84)
I do like/recommend these, for academic writing.

Rice says theses are “restrictive” and act almost like miniature outlines (84).
I call them maps to the paper, in case I get lost in the direction the student was intending to take.

“[t]he potential of opening up writing to discovery and invention” (Rice 84).
He is talking about Nelson on hypertext, but I think that this is what juxtapositions can offer the students and what–when they are done at the same time/together–digital composing with/for the research paper offers. It is part of why I fiddled again this semester with when the paper and digital presentations are due.

“When writers expand connections, when they begin to include a variety of material into the writing process…, writers begin as well to move beyond immediate controlling situations” (Rice 85).

He then says they often discover conflicts–what Lauer encouraged as dissonance, I think.

George Landow “The Paradigm Is More Important than the Purchase” argues that “new media shapes educational outlooks and pedagogical positions” (Rice 85).

“web of information one encounters in media where juxtapositions not only foreground conflict but make finding one conclusion to a situation conflicted as well” (Rice 86).

“[J]uxtapositions are meant to introduce conflict as a response to information and cultural overloads” (Rice 86).
This is Lauer again, but it was not comfortable for me and I am still unsure how I would go about teaching it. –I think it might be interesting, but I would work on this in an Advanced Composition course, rather than a freshman writing course, at least at first, because (one hopes) advanced comp writers already have a standard repertoire and can use a little shaking up without becoming totally lost. That way, if it didn’t work like Rice says, or I couldn’t figure out how to explain/teach/model it for students, we could throw it out without ruining the work of a semester.

“radical innovations proposed by Engelbart or by Nelson… conflicts Bourroughs suggests… are all central to new media rhetoric” (Rice 87)

Geoffrey Sic, English Composition p. 18 “pedagogy as dare” (Rice 87)

DJs and hypertext “strive to forge connections among disparate material through various types of appropriations and juxtapositions” (Rice 87).

metaphors, “importants of assemblages,” samples (Rice 88)

“tops of digital sampling” (Rice 89)
“digital sampling extends itself rhetorically so that the tops transforms into the remix” (Rice 89)

“Writing does reorganize and rework source material… yet writing also strings together found compositions based on the intricate ways each connects or doesn’t connect with the others” (Rice 89)

metaphor? “confusing whirlwind… inciting discomfort” (Rice 90)

“translate the theoretical principles of composition to a pedagogy appropriate for digital writing” (Rice 91)
“produce a writing composed of juxtapositions. It would be, therefore, performative” (Rice 91).


Rhetoric of Cool: Ch 2 Chora

by Dr Davis on April 14, 2014

Rice, Jeff. “Chora.” The Rhetoric of Cool: Composition Studies and New Media.” Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2007. 30-46. Print.

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0“Chora,” as a chapter, begins and ends with example. The opening example is his attempt to understand 1963 outside of written texts on rhetorical history. He looks at iconic representations of 1963 and discovers JFK’s assassination (my main public association) and MLK Jr’s “I Have a Dream” (which I didn’t know was given in 1963), which he expands to include the cool of James Dean, James Brown’s music, and American Graffiti.

Basically, he took “cool” and looked for where and how it was used. The topos driven ad imagery of cool was young, fashion related, hip, popular, and rebellious (31). Rice takes Aristotle’s place and offers the internet as the organizing principle (is that right idea?). What things does he discover about cool by surfing around for it?

Looking at cool this way re-structures what is cool. He cites Gregory Ulmer’s Heuretics: The Logic of Invention and says that we can expand our writing by using all the meanings.

Chora teaches “how to make connections” (Rice 35).

Rice says both readers and writers are participatory within chora as it is created on the internet. Hypertextual links allow/require the reader to engage and linearity is limited. (This is the connection I was attempting to make with my Old English Readings course when we were reading the bestiaries, particularly the works online: Aberdeen Bestiary and the Book of Kells.)

I also noted in the margin that this is the practice/push for the new Tenure and Promotion packages scholars at my university must create; the T&P “binders of doom” have been replaced by a blog with links and images. On a related and somewhat discursive note, I wondered why they had not just adopted iBooks as our T&P production method. But iBooks may actually provide/force more linearity than they wanted. I guess I will find out as I work on my non-linear T&P portfolio online this summer particularly.

Through his embedded invention discussion, he prioritizes the digital because it was online that he sought and found the streams of competing and complementing ideas of cool.

Rice mentions (rather than discusses, because there is limited development) an assignment he has given his students. It comes, or has come, in two iterations. In one, he asks students to find a word in their discipline, their field of study, to research and see all the different ways that word is used.

Come to think of it, that is very much like what I am doing with this study.

The other option is to examine all the courses the student is taking that semester and find a single word that is involved in all of them and investigate that.


Rhetoric of Cool: Ch 3 Appropriation

by Dr Davis on April 14, 2014

Rice, Jeff. “Appropriation.” The Rhetoric of Cool: Composition Studies and New Media.” Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2007. 47-72.


Summary: Appropriation is a rhetorical tool or topos or action to re-create a new thing. Those within the dominant culture may appropriate something, like the definition of cool, and create a new meaning for this. Appropriation of music, re-mixing and mashups, doesn’t create the same thing that was there before but instead re-creates a new thing. Writing is seen as ending in balance or that balance/coherence is necessary; Rice argues that appropriation is necessary to the digital age and the end result may not be balanced or coherent, may not follow a hierarchical organization plan, may not be easy to follow. Appropriation uses parataxis (rearranging items to generate different meanings from them–with each rearrangement, new meanings emerge).

“[W]hen working with appropriation, it’s not enough to simply cut or rearrange words or images. Writers also must reimagine the logic of structure as well…” (Rice 58).
I wonder what this means for an online T&P portfolio. Rice stresses that the digital is not (or should not? be hierarchical), so as I compose for the T&P, should I be working on making something less like a binder of doom and more like a ferris wheel? If I do that, would the committee reviewing the work see it as an advancement in writing–as a legitimate rhetorical move–or would they view it as chaotic, since it would not conform to their expectations nor to previous examples. Would it be a risky move? Should I try it and explain it or not try it and not explain it or try it and not explain it?

Rice argues that appropriation should not be applied to the structure we already know but should find for itself new structures. He doesn’t say that, but it is what he says.

“preference for clarity via organization… weakens appropriation’s rhetorical power” (Rice 59).

Metaphor for appropriation =/= coherence
= collage

cites and discusses William S. Burroughs quite a bit

Appropriation recontextualizes, thus it can be used to undermine the dominant culture as well as to prop it up… depending on how the appropriation is used.

“Academic scholarship turns to appropriation … to learn the methods of persuasion conducive to new media” (Rice 61).

point of using appropriation in classroom = “foster new ways of restructuring language and thought” (Rice 62).

misc_masksHow To
re-mix (music term), cut-up (Burroughs’ term), appropriate (scholarly term)

“As a writing strategy, its purpose is to undermine the dominant ideology of a given text” (Rice 63).

sound, imagery, words, ideas important to writers today (not always?) (Rice 64)

How to synthesize vast quantities of discourse? Sample. (Rice 65)

“digital sampler as an important tool” (Rice 67)
“writing that responds to and makes use of the work of others” (Harris 578 as qtd in Rice 67)

Cecil B. Williams and Alan Stevenson said sampling will help students determine if a work is in the center of a conversation or on the edge. I asked why. Is it because they will see (possibly) that other people are talking about totally different things? Is it because if everyone else is talking about it then it is essential? I can see how it might help, but I think it would depend on the amount of sampling and most folks won’t do enough.

composition incorporating found material is rhetorical innovation (Rice 68)

digital composition undermines traditional authorial constructs (Rice 68)

“appropriation as mix signifies more than just borrowing text” (Rice 69)

appropriation extends beyond writing to personality, alter ego, construction of identity (Rice 69ff)


A Reminder

by Dr Davis on April 13, 2014

Just to remind myself why I am taking the time to write all my notes here (and bore most of you to tears, no doubt!)… I suggested a scholarship program of readings in the rhetoric of new media, particularly the visual aspects, and in relation to the digital presentations (videos) that I have had my students preparing.

Christine de Pizan in her study cellRice’s next chapter is particularly germane, but really I am putting these online so that I don’t have to search through my hard drive for them. I just today found a treasure box of 54 articles that I had stuffed into a file (in my teaching folder for some reason, rather than my reading folder) and while that list is daunting (in addition to all the notes I still have to transcribe), at least it is a computer file and I will be able to take it with me to the British Isles this summer and work on it there as well.

I meant to keep track of the hours I have put into this project, but somewhere after 29 I forgot. So now I don’t know. I am sure that I will be at 135 by the time I finish all the transcriptions, but I may interrupt those for some of the other articles.

I’m hoping that re-writing will make meaning out of all these ideas and pull them together. If not, I will be in the position one of my students mentioned to me earlier when he said that while he had a lot of readings, they hadn’t really pulled together in any particular way… For him, I was able to suggest an organizational strand. Perhaps as I put these here, an organizational pattern will become clear to me as well.


Rhetoric of Cool: Ch 1 History 1963

by Dr Davis on April 13, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Rice, Jeff. “The Story of Composition Studies and Cool.” The Rhetoric of Cool: Composition Studies and New Media.” Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2007. 11-29. Print.

The first chapter introduces the history of Composition Studies, when it first began being written with a capital C. According to Stephen North, Eric Havelock, and James Berlin, Composition began in 1963, though Jim noted that it was a re-birth.

Rice delineates the factors which make most composition theorists choose 1963 as the renaissance of composition theory and practice. One includes McCrimmon’s 1963 textbook Writing With a Purpose, which focuses on writing as process. Forty years after the book came out, I was using it in a college classroom; we as practitioners have seen process as a focus. Another is the revival of classical rhetoric, a bit of neo-neo-classicism, spearheaded primarily by Edward P.J. Corbett. A third is the focus on empirical research, participant observation, with the student as variable and an emphasis on control.

So, what, exactly is Rice encouraging or focusing on or uplifting or point out? McLuhan mentioned cool. Weathers’ Grammar B is somewhat related to Rice’s ideas.

Rice says the focus is not on the tools of the trade, not on the computer and the fingers and the motions of hitting the keys, but on the practices that result from the technological means we use to compose. These practices or rhetorical principles he lists as:

Like Lev Manovich, Rice calls attention to “specific rhetorical features conducive to new media” (Rice 28).

Rice ends with the idea that movement, change, fluidity, and malleability are emphasized. Chora, his first rhetorical principle, focuses on the instability of rhetorical meaning–its inevitable, though not always slow, change.



by Dr Davis on April 12, 2014

It is hard to send off writing of your own, particularly something that you like, because most of the time it will be rejected. What you wrote may not be suitable for the audience, may not match the purpose of this journal issue, may not be situated in the context the editor is expecting. Most of the time, though, the only rejection is a “Thank you, but this does not suit our needs.”

Right now, having just received a rejection for a piece that I thought was very well done, I would say that a rejection is the most difficult. However, thinking back to the desperation that sometimes accompanies revisions to a piece with R&R, I hesitate to make that comment. The requested revision is hopeful because the editors and readers saw the potential that you as the author saw when you began to write it, while a rejection has none of that recognition. An R&R, though, gives you a second chance to fail, as well as a chance to succeed and for some people that is very stressful.

So let me just say that for today, in the situation I am in and my mood and my state of mind, the rejection for a work that was my first foray into a relatively new world for me was difficult. It was a no, though a no with a thank you appended. It was a no, though they recognized impetus of the work within the work.

Rejection is hard to take, whenever and however it enters our lives. I wanted to mark its poignancy here, as I will no endeavor to completely forget that I sent the work in and that it was turned down.

Have I sent anything to X? No, I don’t think so….


Teaching New Media Responsibly

by Dr Davis on April 12, 2014

Veltsos, Jennifer R. and Christophe Veltsos. “Teaching Responsibly with Technology-mediated Communication.” Business Communication Quarterly 73.4 (December 2010): 463-67.

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Privacy rules require that students not be forced to disclose certain personal information. Some students are at risk if they are required to create a website, or whatever, so be prepared to allow the creation of a sock puppet (464).

Remind students of the permanence of the internet. Tweets are now archived with the Library of Congress (465).

Discuss the usability of online sources and how it can constitute plagiarism (465). –Educational use only is allowed, but if we post these anywhere else, then we are infringing on someone else’s copyright. This is important to note if they are planning to post a video to YouTube. … Discuss how audio and visuals can be found that are creative commons and/or public domain.

Performance feedback must be kept private (466). So don’t comment on the video or the blog post if it is in the general internet –or even if it is behind a school wall. Others within the school can still see it.

These are good points to remember.


Openness and Replicating Studies

by Dr Davis on April 11, 2014

Brian Keegan’s article argues for the need to have openness in data journalism by replicating a study by Walt Hickey on movies using the Bechdel Test.

Hickey says the study “analyzed 1,615 films released from 1990 to 2013 to examine the relationship between the prominence of women in a film and that film’s budget and gross profits.”

Taken from Hickey's original article.

Taken from Hickey’s original article.

Keegan discusses a lot of different findings (and shows his data and programming runs). One of the most interesting findings is on when we can expect to see American movies regularly passing the Bechdel Test.

Extrapolating this linear model forward in time, on Tuesday, August 30, 2089, the average movie will finally pass the Bechdel test. Just 75 years to go even the average summer blockbuster will have minimally-developed female characters! Hooray!

This is a quote from an article on repeating analysis of published studies for data journalism. It specifically repeats research on movies that pass/don’t pass the Bechdel test.

His findings on movies that pass the Bechdel test:
Receive budgets that are 24% smaller
Make 55% more revenue
Are awarded 1.8 more Metacritic points by professional reviewers
Are awarded 0.12 fewer stars by IMDB’s amateur reviewers

In addition to replicating (as far as possible given inadequate information on methods) Hickey’s study, Brian Keegan added some analysis of the date regarding:
IMDB ratings
professional critic ratings

He also controlled for additional variables, including:

MPAA Rating. People dislike G-rated movies that happen to pass the Bechdel test more, perhaps.
Runtime. Instead of people hating “feminist” movies, maybe movies passing the Bechdel test are just longer and people don’t like 2-hour marathons.
Genre. Maybe some genres like romantic comedies or dramas have an easier time passing the Bechdel test.
Year. There may be a nostalgia effect of movies in the past that pass the test being rated differently than movies released more recently that pass the test.
Week. Summer and holiday blockbusters are different animals than awards vehicles that are released in the fall and winter.
English language. “Seriously, who likes strong female leads and subtitles? Get me a Bud Light Lime and let’s fire up Michael Bay’s magnum opus Transformers!”
USA. As bad as it may be here, other countries may have it worse.

Is this discrimination?

These four points point to a paradox in which movies that pass an embarrassingly low bar for female character development make more money and are rated more highly by critics, but have to deal with lower budgets and more critical community responses. Is this definitive evidence of active discrimination in the film industry and culture? No, but it suggests systemic prejudices are contributing to producers irrationally ignoring significant evidence that “feminist” films make them more money and earn higher praise.

This is an excellent and interesting article. I appreciate the time Dr. Keegan took to work on it and my husband for passing it on to me.


Seeing Rhetoric

by Dr Davis on April 11, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Allen, Nancy. “Seeing Rhetoric.” Writing the Visual: A Practical Guide for Teachers of Composition and Communication. Ed. Carol David and Anne R. Richards. West Lafayette, IN: Parlor Press, 2008. Print. 32-50.

“Visual rhetoric refers to the visual communication of features and the effects they have on readers/viewers” (Allen 33).

Allen uses specific examples to argue that visuals provide information, make rhetorical appeals, and add nuance.

“To use visual rhetoric effectively, then, we must be careful to consider each item’s appropriateness to our audiences and purpose” (Allen 38).

“A good source for finding examples of the appeal through ethos is personal websites” (Allen 39).

Quotes 2002 website credibility study from Stanford, saying 46% of participants rated credibility of a site based on visual aspects (Allen 39).

Allen suggests that students be required to design their own website, to practice developing ethos (39). She also says that visuals often present the emotional appeal. “[W]e are often swayed more by our passion or emotions (Corbett 34), and it is emotion that inspires us to take action (99)” (Allen 40).

Allen says that images are a good invention strategy. “When students in my classes are developing ideas, with the goal of preparing a recommendation report, I ask them to create visual representations of the problem as part of the development process” (41). She says she actually requires multiple visual representations, in order to facilitate movement beyond “linear matrices and flow charts to sketches and visuals based on freer types of associations” (41).

“[V]isuals translate relations over time into relations in space” which, she argues, helps them to be more easily understood (42). She notes that search engines have become forms of invention and that they have also become more visual.

She notes that “headings in the center are more important than those on the side, and items in a list are related” (44), which we know from stylistic guides but they are rhetorical strategies that can be used effectively. I think this is something that résumé conventions do not strictly follow (at least on center headings). It is, however, interesting to think about whether or not a name centered seems to have more importance than a name to the left side.

“When text becomes art” (46) I noted as a great tag line.

Is this a goal for digital presentations? Text becoming art?

She quotes Donald Norman’s discussion of usability design that visuals provide memory aids. This is the same thing that Jesse Schell argues in The Art of Game Design.

Visuals evoke curiosity. People want to know the story behind images that catch their attention (48).

“Visual thinking during our writing process expands our reservoir of ideas” (Allen 48), which is why the digital presentation should come during or within the writing process, according to a CCTE presentation I attended several years ago.

male studying computerThis is harder to do than I expected, as it seems like students are working on disparate projects. However, I know that doing the digital project does enhance the writing project. Should I revise the 112 schedule to reflect that? Or is having them do two kinds of composing at the same time asking/requiring the students to work with mental overload?