SCMLA: Online and Hybrid Retention

by Dr Davis on October 23, 2014

Anna Hall
Distance Ed and Drop Rates: Maintaining Enrollment in Online and Hybrid Classes

Anna is an English Instructor for the Department of Humanities at Blinn College.

Online = lower retention, drop often, grades of those who continue is similar to f2f

Current trend toward holding professors responsible, as faculty assessment.

“develop an online community” is advice, but doesn’t say how to do this
concrete strategies for increasing retention
first to teach hybrid English classes at Blinn

personal strategies, not foolproof
influence retention

2 core approaches = help students keep grades up and make students emotionally attached

How can I increase student retention and still have time to sleep?

Grades up:
May seem too obvious, good grades = students more likely to continue

Students often think online will be easier. Often freshmen, first semester. Don’t understand the difference between college and high school and then are in online classes.
Students need opportunities to make better choices next week.
One of best ways = increase number of formative assessments
Takes lots of time.
Student participation decreased if only did completion grades.

All assignments I think are useful but not imperative—help them master material. I label as extra credit. Fully embedded.
Topic proposal. Used to hate them. Even though people needed them. But would read 100 proposals and 30+ were awful, not thoughtful. But would still feel waste of tiem to respond.
NOW they are all thoughtful, because done by students who want them.
A&B students write first one. C and D students write for the second one (or subsequent ones).

More quizzes and more difficult quizzes, but allow students to take them twice.
Only write self-grading quiz questions.
Possibility of immediate feedback.
Any opportunity for quick turn around is welcome.
Decided to let them take the quizzes a bunch of times. Discovered 3x was too many. Quiz grades dropped. Students believed they would eventually be able to guess correctly.
All students may take quizzes 2x.
Most of the time 2x allows them to improve.
The CMS/LMS randomizes questions.
Even if students do quiz 1x and then go read, they get benefits.

Creates a more accessible class. Learning disabilities find it helps them more than time.
Also helps students with text anxiety.
Saves me time because I have to do less technical support.
Re-takes allow for rigor because I am able to make them harder without students feeling I am tricking them.

Higher grades are not enough to get retention.

“disembodied professor”

“maintain an online presence” suggestion = post frequently
but my students engage more when I don’t

one on one f2f with students early in semester
can do online interviews if needed
online conferences can help people understand how important in world, because common for business
usually do with return of first essay

digital nativism is not necessarily indicative of digital literacy

stronger connection between professor and student = more likely to retain students

only met with online freshmen comp classes (not enough time to do more)
most likely to drop because least likely to understand what they were getting into (both college and online)

also do videos of myself for lectures, etc
record myself including gestures…

when first started, did no videos
students ignored online instructions
exit survey = lack of connection to anybody biggest problem

first videos were awful, I read from the PPTs which were awful and text heavy.
3rd semester I changed a lot. I am far more lively in f2f.
made videos like I teach in f2f
students were watching videos and responding to them

most students, if I can convince them to start, will continue to watch the videos

exit survey = most often “actually”
actually interesting, actually useful

in hybrid classes, if I show a piece of my videos early in class, students are more likely to watch the videos throughout the class

1. only enough ppt words
2. 20 minutes most
3. don’t edit out problems
4. make video just for them, don’t keep them for more than a year
5. be happy—we enjoy talking about this stuff and our students should see this


SCMLA: Game of Thrones

by Dr Davis on October 23, 2014

Robert Stanton, South U: Austin
“Excessive and Appropriate Gifts: Hospitality and Violence in Game of Thrones.”

program director of …

given source of Latin word hospice and hostility, hospitality might be taking care of with hostility
works in GoT

given Derrida’s limits, open us… divinity
“altogether other” no ethics without god
divine as source of ethics, and therefore of hospitality

Greeks Xenia and Theoxenia. All strange guests were treated as potential divine.

Rat cook killed guest and served him to father. Gods transformed him into rat which had to eat his rat descendants, while remaining hungry.

Guest right, hospitality laws

Emphasis on food, sharing of salt and bread

If guest right is established and honored and key, why does it fail so often? Why are failures so key?

Thymotic drives (Greek) anger, pride, ambition, courage, determination, desire for dominion, one more
In Martin’s world thymotic drives are still related to familial honor ideals.

So it is where these two cultural beliefs clash.

Red Wedding discussed in detail.
Memorable narrative unity.

Icon of thymotic interpretation = R Stark, denounced and executed.

How do readers use extra textual world? How does it operate?
I was looking for something and found fan maps and Panem and people projecting maps onto North America and asking questions about where and when.
“accessibility relations” between texts and worlds

idea of extra-textual discussion as responsive


SCMLA: Bradamant

by Dr Davis on October 22, 2014

Joe R. Christopher, Tarleton State
“The Negative Quest of Bradamant”

professor emeritus, pub. Full-length critical works on Tolkien and Lewis

title “On Bradamant’s Mind Quests”
in 2011 Bradamant’s Quest published

want to discuss first 4 quests

Bradamant 1st appears in Italian Charlemagne romances
In Burman’s revision, Bradamant is granddaughter of Charlemagne through mother.
Woman warrior. Widowed. Has a son, adult in medieval terms.

Burman wants to focus on Bradamant.
Temporal setting = after battle in which Roland (and her husband) died
In history was Basques, in myth was Spanish Moors.

Period of mourning over when novel begins.
King wants Renald (his grandson). Bradamant says she will go get him. Heads to her brother’s castle.
Oberon appears to her as she is watering her horse.
Oberon says world grows old and further from “us” (creatures and fairy). Says fairy gifts need to be returned. The gifts are failing in the human world and thereby weakening fairy.
Bradamant’s family were given gifts.

8 magical objects and 1 magical creature
11 quests…

How can Burman repeat a pattern 9x and not make it boring and/or amusing?

1st 4 quests show variety…

4 chapters are good models for what follows.
5- Oberon climbs out of well to take shield.
8- horn’s voice is heard, telling to give to raven
6- lamina takes Roland’s sword with him thru magic portal
9- Maugus’ book and Maugus are carried off by tree woman—kind of an Ent (not an Ent-wife)
10- book, fairy who gave book shows back up to take it, and A sends hippogriff off with this fairy b/c hippogriff dying

7- Ogre’s Mood?
On hippogriff Bradamant is blown off course.
Adds to variety in book.

Variety and shifting detail work.


SCMLA: Bujold and Queerness

by Dr Davis on October 22, 2014

Robin Anne Reid, Texas A&M
“Holy Family: Divine Queerness in Bujold’s Chalion Series”

creative writing, new media, critical theory, fantastic literatures—esp. Tolkien

Alexander Doty Flaming Classics: Queering the Film Canon.
Definition 6—establish spaces not described by or contained within….

Queerness = overt
Textual queerness may not be intended by author.

Queerness may not be in characters, but in text.
Dream visions of heterosexual males about deities is example of textual queerness.

Source: “Evolutions of Fantasy Series in …. Rings and Bujold’s xxx” –book? Article?

Male protagonists are codedly feminine—mutant or disabled men as well as all women.

Wright “queerly inflected” about Bujold

All characters talking about are men and dead.

5 deities created
Bujold said she “wanted a different religion, one with some parity built in.”

Holy Family breaks hetero-normative
Queers because bastard is result of mother and a demon

Differences played out on bodies of men

Five holy points =
Wound not controlled, bleeding uncontrolled ? women’s bleeding

Self-consciously simple… but stylistic choices in visions… lacking in sf novels
Male body penetrated, feminization
Thinking about selections for printing out for handout
Feminine coding of men … binding the male body to female = rape, torture, disability

No academic discussion of why male heterosexual characters are discussed in terms of queerness.
Realized how Bujold handles male characters…
In Chalion male character is created like fanfiction. Comfort hurt fiction. Protagonist is hurt and someone else is comforting.
Bujold was a fanfiction writer.

Think Bujold writing about males’ bodies is related to how folks relate to comfort hurt fanfiction.
Relates to author Pieuw? (pieu, pew?) female writers incorporated tropes in orig historical tropes

New question: Are women incorporating hurt/comfort tropes in fiction?


SCMLA: Storyworlds

by Dr Davis on October 21, 2014

Colin Irvine, Augsburg College (Minneapolis)
“Reading into the World of Panem”

associate prof, literature, environmental

Marie-Laure Ryan writes on dystopian texts and story worlds
Textual worlds—both imagined and real
Hunger Games, where is District 12 in the Appalachians?
Protagonists stand in for the reader.

How he introduces his class:
Students often enter classroom stories like sleepwalkers, almost unconscious and fumbling.
The Way We Think—about reading, quote
Polar opposite of characters at beginning of Hunger Games

Students entry to course literature.
Ways that they think literarily when introduced to reading.

Couple of cartoons, what is this? Line drawings
Man lifting hat. Gutter/gap fill
Cocreate characters

A vixen sneered at a lioness because she never bore more than one cub.
“Only one,” lioness replied, “but a lion.”
Strange about the story? Animals are talking.

Discussing texts and theories
Gerard Jay’s paratexts and narrative levels
Intra-diegetic level…

Show video from beginning of Get Smart. We walk into the story world, paratext. Gives us clues.

Threshold of paratexts… analyze the texts at the beginning
Ways each text makes most of the liminal space

Hidden, secrets, sources of suspense are common to fiction.
Unfolding and revelation = narrative

Situating protagonist in uncomfortable/unknown setting.
Complicates text.

Hunger Games beginning
Who is the narrator? Where is she waking up? What is reaping?
Divergent opening also.

Who are characters? Where are they? When are they?
Storyworlds themselves. Don’t know where they reside.

Ryan’s topology 5 types.
· Actual world
· Actual possible world
· Non-actual possible (Dems and Reps working together)
· Textual actual world
· Textual reference world (or alternate possible world, housed in mind of writer)

Textual actual v textual reference worlds
Explaining: Rowling’s experience of writing. In middle of the series. Have world. Rowling understood the textual reference world—where seemingly
5 years on HP and Philosopher’s Stones were laying down the rules. What characters can’t do.

Two additional
Textual Actual (fabricated) Arena/Game World (TAGW)
Textual Actual but Initially Unknown World, commonly coming after or outside the first book in series, (TAIUW)

Overlapping textual and actual worlds and way in reader warps into world of characters, we are linked to story by events in story.

What it means to grow up in a changing world.


SCMLA: Science Fiction panel

by Dr Davis on October 21, 2014

South Central Modern Language Association met this year in Austin and, contrary to prior years, met on Saturday through Tuesday.

I attended the science fiction panel at SCMLA on Monday, October 21. The session was well attended and had some great speakers.

steampunk_word_processor_icon_microsoft_word_typewriter by_yereverluvinuncleberScience Fiction and Fantasy Literature
Chair: Alexios Moore, Columbia College-Chicago
Secretary: Bonnie Noonan, Xavier U

Colin Irvine, Augsburg College (Minneapolis)
“Reading into the World of Panem”

associate prof, literature, environmental

Robin Anne Reid, Texas A&M
“Holy Family: Divine Queerness in Bujold’s Chalion Series”

creative writing, new media, critical theory, fantastic literatures—esp. Tolkien

Joe R. Christopher, Tarleton State
“The Negative Quest of Bradamant”

professor emeritus, pub. Full-length critical works on Tolkien and Lewis

Robert Stanton, South U: Austin
“Excessive and Appropriate Gifts: Hospitality and Violence in Game of Thrones.”

program director of …


Metarhetoric of Aristotle

by Dr Davis on October 19, 2014

steampunk_icon_for_Safari_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d4zhax0Murphy, James J. “The Metarhetoric of Aristotle, with Some Examples from His ‘On Memory and Recollection.’” Rhetoric Review 21.3 (2002): 213-28. Web. March 10, 2012.

“the Rhetoric can only be understoodin light of Aristotle’s general theory of human action-that is, the set of prior knowledges necessary to comprehend an analysis of a particular human action” (Murphy 213)

“Metarhetoric investigates what a rhetorician needs to know in order to begin to be a rhetoric. … metarhetoric is not a rhetoric itself but rather a congeries of knowledges and skills prior to that rhetoric” (Murphy 214).

“It is the humanity of speaker and audience,not any principles of argument,that Aristotle perceives inherent in the rhetorical situation” (Murphy 215).

“Aristotle sees rhetoric as a necessary form of human knowledge-sharing” (Murphy 215).

Greek writing ancient pottery by Tkoletsis“His treatment of the role of memory in the audience reception of enthymemes-for example, the reasoning must not be too long (1395b24)-could well encourage the reader to look into On Memory and Recollection; in fact, since metaphor is based on comparison of the new to the known, it too depends on a principle of memory of the known” (Murphy 217).

“Habit, or the tendency to act in a certain manner, derives from memory in that unrecollected choices create a potential motion of the soul in advance of recollection” (Murphy 218).

“recollection succeeds as a chain-seeking exercise; therefore, finding any point on the chain can lead to the desired point. That is why mnemonic topoi (452a14) are useful as startin gpoints; since the human intellect is capable of identifying classes of perceptions retained in the memory, the identification of a single topos can unlock a whole category of retained perceptions” (Murphy 219).

“Aristotle sees the rhetorical enthymeme as a cooperative syllogism requiring activity by both speaker and hearer” (219).

“The speaker offers, through language, a set of symbols designed to initiate-not to complete-a line of argument. At some point, ideally of the speaker’s choosing, the audience member self-identifies the point of the argument based on his own synaptic rush of memory that enables him to grasp the entire argument” (Murphy 219).
Can this be used to discuss cosplay? Except not in language but performance/action/image?

“the recollection chain must be as short as possible” (Murphy 220)

“Aristotle sets out two conditions for success: First, the speaker must know what is accepted by his audience, and he “must know some, if not all, the facts about the subject.”The first is a matter of observation.The second, however,is subject to recollection” (220).

“By a period I mean a portion of speech that has in itself a beginning and an end, being at the same time not too big to be taken in at a glance” (Aristotle, chapter nine of Book Three of the Rhetoric, qtd in Murphy 221).

steampunk_word_processor_icon_microsoft_word_typewriter by_yereverluvinuncleber“memory depends on sharp,clear presentations; a thing perceived fuzzily can only be remembered the same way” (Murphy 222)
Says they need to be lively and unfamiliar… I wonder if steampunk cosplay meets this. I know it is not language per se, but it is rhetorical.

“the indispensable criterion for the successful rhetorical enthymeme is that the hearer must supply part of the “reasoning” process. From whence can that come except from unrecollected memory? (If it is consciously recollected, the Discovery fails.)” (Murphy 222).

“The unrecollected memory of past appetites, in this case the habit of being angry, becomes a tool for the speaker to manipulate” (Murphy 223).

“Later the Romans were to make the synthetic judgment about the role of habit in rhetoric, making it the keystone of their educational program” (Murphy 223).

“underlying language is his understanding of “movement”-the change from potentiality to actuality-in human souls” (224)

“I would reply that no one can understand how rhetorical it [the Rhetoric] really is until it is understood completely as part of a complex effort by Aristotle to describe the whole universe and the human beings in it” (Murphy 224).



Memory Reconceived

by Dr Davis on October 18, 2014

Hutton, Patrick H. “The Art of Memory Reconceived: From Rhetoric to Psychoanalysis.” Journal of the History of Ideas 48.3 (July-Sept 1987): 371-92. Web. March 10, 2012.

steampunk_icon_for_Safari_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d4zhax0“Mnemonics, or the art of memory, is today regarded as an arcane intellectual interest. It functions on the periphery of popular culture” (Hutton 371).

“The art of memory as it was traditionally conceived was based upon associations between a structure of images easily remembered and a body of knowledge in need of organization” (Hutton 371).

“If the art of memory was an essential technique of learning for yesterday’s rhetoricians, it has become for today’s psychologists the stuff of sideshows” (Hutton 372).

“memory as it was understood in its classical formulation provided not only a useful skill but also a way of understanding the world” (Hutton 372)

“From this perspective the art of memory was not only a pedagogical device but also a method of interpretation. It is this link between the art of memory and the making of paradigms of cultural understanding that suggests the larger significance of this topic” (Hutton 372).

“correspondences between the art of memory as it was practiced in the rhetorical tradition that culminated in the Renaissance and the use of memory as a technique of soul-searching in the Romantic tradition of psychology that culminates in psychoanalysis” (Hutton 373)

Frances A. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago, 1966).

through time Yates found that “the techniques of the art of memory remained essentially the same” (Hutton 373)

“the poet Simonides of Ceos, who was the first to reflect upon the emotional power of a system of images as an aid to memory” (Hutton 374)

steampunk_file_server_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5exhgj“arrangements of places and images. The places provided an architectonic design in which the knowledge to be remembered was to be situated. These were places so deeply embedded in the mind of the mnemonist that they could not be forgotten. The architecture of place” (Hutton 374)

“A good memory was a function of a resilient imagination, and images were chosen for their aesthetic appeal. Vivid pictorial imagery that inspired awe was judged to be the most effective” (Hutton 374).

(As per Plato) “The art of memory, therefore, was a way of establishing correspondences between the microcosm of the mind’s images and the macrocosm of the ideal universe, which were believed to be congruent structures. In such a conception, the role of the mnemonist took on added importance. Not only did he practice a skill, but he also assumed a priestly status as an interpreter of the nature of reality” (Hutton 375)

“The key to understanding the nature of memory, Vico contends, is derived from the direct correspondence between image and idea in primitive poetic language. In the beginnings of civilization, image and idea were one” (Hutton 377).

“Vico’s theory of memory as an act of interpretation that enables us to establish connections between the familiar images of the present and the unfamiliar ones of the past anticipates the modern science of hermeneutics” (Hutton 379).

“memory as a key to magic was displaced by memory as a key to soul-searching” (Hutton 380)

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0“The need for an art of memory to verify the integrity of knowledge through recourse to memorized oral formulae was rendered obsolete by the dramatic expansion of the publishing business and the rapid growth of the reading public” (Hutton 381)

“The transformation of the human mind that Vico describes in terms of the evolution of tropes, therefore, may also be understood in terms of the long-range shift from orality to literacy to print culture” (Hutton 381).

“the major theoretical expositions of the art in the ancient world, those devised by Roman rhetoricians in the first century B.C., were contributed during Rome’s most illustrious age of literary expression” (Hutton 382).

“As places permanently fixed on the printed page, words acquired an autonomy they had not previously possessed. … written communication is transacted through texts and thereby acquires a specific identity of time and place” (Hutton 382).

“Less constrained by demands for assiduous memorization, the citizen of print culture was disposed to use his memory for a more inquisitive kind of learning. If the art of memory appeared to many to have lost favor in the declining prestige of rhetoric, it was destined to rise once more in the guise of autobiography” (Hutton 383).

steampunk_email_icon_for_outlook_mkii_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5a47qa“The recollection of the past is therefore a process of emplotting the landmarks of one’s life history as it is presently perceived” (Hutton 384).

“Freud asserts the constructive power of the unconscious mind to shape recollection. To use his terminology, memory is tendentious in that it reflects unconscious psychic intent. In this respect the unconscious mind is the guardian of memory” (Hutton 388).

“Michel Foucault’s notion of “counter-memory,” which denies the ability of collective memory to bind meanings across dissimilar historical epochs, is a provocative statement of this point of view. Foucault’s questioning of the intrinsic value of remembering the thought of ages past reveals the degree to which our present perception of the art of memory has shifted from the problem of forgetfulness to that of oblivion” (Hutton 391).



Kuhn on Memory

by Dr Davis on October 17, 2014

steampunk_icon_for_Safari_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d4zhax0Annette Kuhn has written two major works in memory studies and this chapter in Memory and Methodology provides the tale of her journey. In some ways, that makes it the antithesis of what I hope to do; she is writing about how she moved through memory, while I will be writing how memory is moving. In other ways, it is very similar.

“personal memory materials–artefacts” (179)

“A critical deconstruction would attend to the narrative strategies and rhetorical devices at work in autobiographical texts, and with the ways in which the autobiographical self is textually constructed” (181).

She says she looks at revisionist autobiographies which “incorporate into their writing implicit or explicit critiques, even deconstructions, of traditional modes” (181).

They “subvert assumptions about the transparency, authenticity, or ‘truth’ of memory” (182).

At this point in the chapter, Kuhn discusses a series of autobiographical stories which featured school girl shots of the authors, but never commented on the photographs within the texts. She begins to focus on visual rhetoric at this point.

“What is the function of images in relation to written accounts…?” she asks (182).

“images are just as much productions of meaning as words, even if the ‘language’ is different” (182).

“Personal photos have a … special, place in the production of memories about our own lies” (183).

She says, with photos, millions have gained “a new kind of access to the past” (183).

“Personal photographs are commonly taken as evidence” (183), which made me think of rhetoric again.

“how images make meanings…. every photograph contains a range of possible meanings…” (183).

Those photos “embody coded references to, and even help construct, realities” (183).

Photos can have “status as cultural artifacts” (184) and “carry meanings which have as much to do with aesthetic and cultural conventions as with any unsullied ‘truth’” (184).

Photographs of a person, an autobiography in images, is “a constant reworking of memory and identity” (184).

“we cannot access the past event in any unmediated form. The past is unavoidably rewritten, revised, through memory; and memory is partial…”

“I have made some discoveries about how memory works, and observed in action some of the psychical and cultural processes through which memory organises not only our inner worlds but the outer ones of public expression” (185).

She identifies “a set of cultural products which … share key characteristics… ‘memory texts’.”

“remembering binds us as individuals into shared subjectivities and collectivities” (185)

Definition of memory work: “an active practice of remembering which takes an inquiring attitude towards the past and the activity of its (re)construction through memory. Memory work undercuts assumptions about the transparency or the authenticity of what is remembered, treating it not as ‘truth’ but as evidence of a particular sort: material for interpretation…” (186).

“stages memory through words, spoken and written, in images of many kinds, and also in sounds” (186)

“the relationship between actual events and our memories of them is by no means mimetic” (186)

“the past is always mediated” (186)

“memory does not simply involve forgetting, misremembering, repression…. memory actually is these processes…” (186)

“performative nature of remembering” (186)

She says what we bits and pieces we choose to put in memory is important but also “what we do with them: how we use these relics to make memories, and how we then make use of the stories they generate to give deeper meaning to, and if necessary to change, our lives now” (187).

Main Patterns

1. Memory orders our inner worlds
2. Memory is an active production of meanings
3. Memory texts have their own formal conventions
4. Memory texts voice a collective imagination
5. In modernity, memory embodies both union and fragmentation
6. Memory is formative of communities of nationhood.

“does memory share the imagistic quality of unconscious productions” (188)

“condensations, its displacements–gaps, non-causal logic, discontinuous scenes” (188)

“pre-texts of memory” (188)

“peculiar characteristics of memory texts is a quite distinctive organisation of time” (189)

“events narrated or portrayed in memory texts often telescope or merge” (189)

“memory texts will deliver abrupt and quite vertiginous shifts of scene and/or of narrative viewpoint” (190)

family stories (birth weddings death) “produce a sense of time as cyclical: a version of ‘timelessness’” (191)

“intersubjective domain of shared meanings” (191)

“memory texts are shaped by conventions” (191)

“stories often take on a timeless, mythic quality which grows with each retelling” (192)

“actually to create their own world and give themselves and each other a place, a place of some dignity and worth” (192)

“in making sense of, we also imagine, and make, a shared world. Memory texts translate the psychical activity of warding off loss into the domain of the social” (193)

“Memory texts proliferate” (193)

In the collective domain … “a search for common imaginings of a shared past” (194)

“memory feeds into a conception of a history that is ‘ours,’ and that belongs to all of ‘us’” (194)



Aristotle’s On Memory and Reminiscence

by Dr Davis on October 16, 2014

steampunk_icon_for_Safari_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d4zhax0As part of my preparation for the chapter on cosplay and memory, I am reviewing rhetorical presentations of memory. These are quotes from Aristotle’s On Memory and Reminiscence translated by J. I. Beare and found online.

“persons who possess a retentive memory are not identical with those who excel in power of recollection”

“Memory is, therefore, neither Perception nor Conception, but a state or affection of one of these, conditioned by lapse of time.”

“Whenever one actually remembers having seen or heard, or learned, something, he includes in this act (as we have already observed) the consciousness of ‘formerly’; and the distinction of ‘former’ and ‘latter’ is a distinction in time.”

“there is in us something like an impression or picture, why should the perception of the mere impression be memory of something else”

“we have to conceive that the mnemonic presentation within us is something which by itself is merely an object of contemplation, while, in-relation to something else, it is also a presentation of that other thing.”

“the one (the unrelated object) presents itself simply as a thought, but the other (the related object) just because, as in the painting, it is a likeness, presents itself as a mnemonic token” These seem like they would be important for cosplay and I should build on them.

“This (occurrence of the ‘sudden idea’) happens whenever, from contemplating a mental object as absolute, one changes his point of view, and regards it as relative to something else.”

Definition “what memory or remembering is, it has now been shown that it is the state of a presentation, related as a likeness to that of which it is a presentation; and as to the question of which of the faculties within us memory is a function, (it has been shown) that it is a function of the primary faculty of sense-perception, i.e. of that faculty whereby we perceive time.”

“the moment of the original experience and the moment of the memory of it are never identical”

“recollecting always implies remembering, and actualized memory follows (upon the successful act of recollecting)”

“recollecting must imply in those who recollect the presence of some spring over and above that from which they originally learn”

“This explains why we hunt up the series (of kineseis) having started in thought either from a present intuition or some other, and from something either similar, or contrary, to what we seek, or else from that which is contiguous with it.”

“Recollecting differs also in this respect from relearning, that one who recollects will be able, somehow, to move, solely by his own effort, to the term next after the starting-point.”

“For remembering, as we have conceived it, essentially implies consciousness of itself.”

“recollection is, as it were a mode of inference”

“Infants and very old persons have bad memories, owing to the amount of movement going on within them” I wonder if this also applies to someone who is an infant in a social community. Will a newbie have difficulty with memories of the first con because they have too much movement within them as they are learning a lot of new things at the same time?