From the category archives:

Business/Tech Writing

Oral Culture

by Dr Davis on July 12, 2014

Visual and Acoustic Space
Jennifer Bradshaw

SCMLA, took notes rather than live blogging. Lost notes. Have now recovered them. These are my notes.

for PhD looked into glossalalia, tying it into culture and mountain witches

Looking at Marshall McLuhan, Walter Ong, etc.

acoustic space – ear as primary function
how function in oral society
time is unfixed, fluid
sound disappears –> going out of existence
sound dynamic indicates presence and power

students reading in libraryvisual space – eye as dominant
time fixed
writing is fixed

acoustic –> shows there (lion roar)
v. image of lion

acoustic = names have power
don’t speak curse
man situated within space, within God’s space

acoustic can hear what is behind
visual can only see what is in front

acoustic = community
from interior of one goes into interior of another

visual = distances
can read without connection

visual –> leads to separation and division
artificiality
function of symbol

secondary orality:
Ong- radio, TV
McLuhan- included computers

typinghas features of orality
still sound, surrounds
but time becomes more limited than visual
must be instant
have absence and distancing
sound becomes a fixed location–doesn’t indicate presence or power

digital rebuilds communities
renewed sense of community
not like original oral communities

problems with secondary orality
overlaid onto the visual
grounded on visual space

benefits of secondary orality
disseminate information
build community

silence
“speaking silence” Ong
silence = active, dynamic of acoustic space
can encounter God in active silence
silence doesn’t change–no beginning or end, so it is fluid

empty spaces in visual are like silence in acoustic

empty in visual = potential

situated in our empty space in visual
empty space –physics –void, black hole, vacuum
but Frank Close says light + light = darkness

sign that God exists within darkness
light in light can be darkness

shows potential in empty space

secondary orality and the media
foster awareness of self as situated
think of these silences
empty page as silence

language has lost power because we are overwhelmed with sound

negative effects–potentials/benefits may let us revisit and develop positive

Richard Lanham secondary orality –like primary participation and feedback

words dynamic, not fixed online, so can change
good and bad to that

importance of practice theory–>
eye contact, pacing, voice, gestures = 2nd orality
Really? Seems like these would have been important during orality in general.

empty space could be negative potential
(salt thrown behind you to get the devil in the eye)

I screencast-o-matic for feedback.
No spaces for reflection.
Wonder if feedback gives them time.
They have to write my comments into their papers.
So should I have silence in the feedback?

Silence is not necessarily a bad thing.

{ 0 comments }

Metacognitive Peer Review

by Dr Davis on July 7, 2014

“Metacognitive Peer Review in the Tech Writing Classroom”
Leticia French-Slabaugh
SCMLA, I believe.

I took notes rather than live blogging and it has taken me this long to find the notes again and post them.

part of the process is revising and peer reviews

getting quality peer reviews is difficult

discuss quality feedback
Why? Help everyone make an A.
People will make decisions based on your writing and feedback helps create good writing.

Spend time getting students to buy into it.

male studying computerThey need to see themselves as having the ability to give feedback.
They are concerned about their own writing quality and experience.

What does good feedback look, sound, and feel like?
Prime them.

“This sucks” is not useful. Explain why not.
“This is good.” “I don’t see anything that needs to be changed.” These are not useful. Students have to say WHY it is good, so the writer can do even better.

Give specific information and reasoning.
“Because inside address should be recipient’s, your addresses need to be flipped.”

Then they work.

Have students post drafts.
Everybody peer reviews the 3 that are under theirs.

Don’t let them do Track Changes. Just Insert Comments.

The student needs to determine whether suggestions are correct. Insert Comments makes them think this through.

So students draft. Then they get 3 or 4 peer reviews.
Then they review those.
Which was the most helpful? Least helpful?

Then I gather the results, compile it, and publish it back to the students.
I don’t publish these back to that class–but to a different class. That way they don’t see theirs up there as least useful.

At the end of the semester 1 or 2 mention that they are glad we did peer reviews and that they got useful information.

It DOES improve their writing.

{ 0 comments }

Retrospective: Business Writing

by Dr Davis on May 14, 2014

This is the second semester I’ve taught Business Writing at my university during my three years here. While I was looking at their white papers, I made some notes about things to do differently next time.

For the report sequence:
Have the students develop and choose topics early. This will enable them to construct the surveys and interviews for their primary research in a timely manner, so that I can review them and give feedback.

Perhaps the proposal should be revised to include:
–research parameters, including methods and assumptions (require criteria for choices–Why these three expensive restaurants and not the others?)
–justification for the topic (Why does this topic need covering for the intended audience? Why is this project worthy of your time and effort? What will your project add to the developing core of information that Dr. Davis has?)
–survey and/or interview questions
–secondary sources with annotations

That will give me time to give feedback on all the potential issues which have come up in the last two semesters. I need to develop an example paper for this, since it is different from what I have had the students do.

The progress report should include:
–primary research methods and results. This will insure that I get to see these and that, if they have done them incorrectly, they will still have time to re-do them.
–individual surveys (if paper) or access to the data (if online).

Consider additional areas where work the students do in this class can be used. (We printed out R’s flyer on What English Majors Earn and include it in the departmental information handouts. The international student office is posting the digital presentation for international students. I have a developing database of information for entering freshmen.)

For communication disasters:
Introduce the “rules” for PowerPoint.

Require the first one to be done in the first three weeks.

Require the second one to be done in the second three weeks.

Allow extra credit comm disasters to be done in the next six weeks.

For brochures:
Bring examples and discuss positive and negative points. (Both of prior semesters and actual brochures from other places.)

For brochure grading rubric:
I am also going to change the grading rubric, since I want a handout that is related to the project and a good “fit” rather than something that simply repeats the digital presentation. Content and integration will change. Mostly this is due to the change in the topics students are presenting.

Also I am going to add to the Presentation Style and Handout Style section. Poor folding (rather than simply not folded) should be included in the former and layout should be included in the latter.

Update:
I changed the brochure and I am going to put both the old version and the new version here, in case someone could use it. The rubric was created for a handout (either a brochure or a flyer) that was designed to either match a digital presentation (the old version) or support a digital presentation (the new version).

Rubric for brochure old version

Rubric for brochure

{ 0 comments }

Pedagogy of the Visual

by Dr Davis on May 13, 2014

[A]ny application of technology introduced into the classroom should make significant strides toward achieving what may be done differently than if the technology was never used at all. (Rice, The Rhetoric of Cool 151)

This is a main point that Rice is arguing/discussing/proving. How are the essays we teach our students any different now than they were when they were handwritten or typed?

I remember when computers first came into the classroom (1991 at my present university) trying to incorporate images into traditional student essays. I asked for them. The students incorporated them. But they were not particularly well done and I was not particularly comfortable with the assignment of them. Eventually I returned to a “standard” college essay.

I do, however, once again have students incorporate images into texts. I have my business writing students do it with their white papers or research projects. They must include images and/or tables/figures within the body of their papers. These inclusions change the length of the required texts and the compositional aspect of them as well.

The assignment reads 10-12 single-spaced pages, if images are incorporated, or 10-12 double-spaces pages, if images are not at least 1/4 of the paper. My students were appalled when they first read it, as they stopped with 10-12 single-spaced pages. However, when I moved them along in the reading and they saw that they could use images (I do limit images to 2/3s of the paper), they were satisfied (some even happy, while others were simply relieved).

Rice says the technology we use in the classroom tends to most closely mimic print-based culture (151), so PowerPoint slides–mostly words–are just outlines with color.

However, there is also the element of interactivity, of the visual, of association, that he has talked about earlier and so this argument’s foundation is less sturdy than most.

I think that, yes, we are most likely to engage with the technology with which we are most comfortable and as instructors from before the computer was ubiquitous (even if only by a few years) then we are most likely to present computer-assisted compositions that closely resemble print-based compositions. That does not mean that we are engaging only with that.

{ 0 comments }

Digital Presentations at 3 Universities

by Dr Davis on April 28, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Meeks, Melissa and Alex Ilyasova. “A Review of Digital Video Production in Post-Secondary English Classrooms at Three Universities.” Kairos 8.2 (2003). Web. 12 February 2014.

“digital video has the qualities we are looking for to engage students in combining design, production, and literac(ies) in the classroom”

Finally found an explanation of why video isn’t linear, even though we watch it linearly.
“non-linear video production in digital bytes allows for the deleting, adding, moving, and repeating of clips”

Iowa State U
Students are required to create a communication portfolio their sophomore year that includes written, oral, visual, and electronic communication.

Upper division course requires an interview and a presentation of the interview in three ways. These are as text, as an audio file, and as a video file, which combines both audio and visual elements.

Also requires a 2-minute video for a professional audience, describing an object.

Finally requires a “promotional commercial for a product, organization, or idea.” This might be an idea for business and professional writing class.

Graduate course there requires productions, to apply the theory to the application. Two assignments involve digital presentations.
1. Create video as a tutorial using screen captures. –tutorial for software
2. Digital presentation that focuses on exploring the uses of iMovie. Has groups create videos in two weeks on the history and use of buildings on campus. Video is two to three minutes.

Michigan Technological U
Describes the strong culture of support for technology application at the uni.

Introduces Cynthia Selfe and her foray into digital presentations. Says she has only been doing two years [now 13], but won’t teach again without multimodal assignments.

UG Adolescent Lit class
students will create enrichment assignments for ages 11-18, focus on engaging with books
1st show own, focus on sound
shows videos with and without sound
discuss how sound adds or subtracts from work

Then iMovie
students use 10-20 photos and a sound file
Goal is to choose photos that cluster around a theme or topic
royalty free source of photos: American Memories Collection
Has students save a song, too. Then create a video.
Says important to remember that things will go wrong

Erin Smith
Says students not engaged in traditional reading practices, but practiced in film and television.
She has the students write their own assessments, explaining why they made the choices they did.

Alison Crockett
Says digital presentation and a written essay share similar processes.

First, the concept or a thesis/main idea is created.
Then a treatment or brainstorming occurs – a more developed and detailed idea coming out of the concept.
Next, an extended treatment or an outline might follow.
Research or getting your elements – which might include interviews, film and video footage, music, stills, graphics, etc. – is next.
Then, depending on your elements, storyboarding or a more developed and complete outline follows.
The script or draft is developed around this time.
Finally, post-production or possibly a second/final draft occurs where you blend the elements together to tell your story.

UNC Chapel Hill
Daniel Anderson has been teaching video production for twenty years, beginning in 1994.
He “focuses on teaching students to think “in” non-alphabetic literacies, making use of rhetorical strategies in multimedia compositions.”
In his graduate classes students wrestle with and think about non-alphabetic composing.
His advice to those interested in using the technology in their classrooms is to “play with it” and “don’t over think it.”

Scott Halbritter
using video for the first time this fall in a remedial writing class
students produce a 5-minute video talking about honor, integrity, and ethics in the uni
Having remedial students creating digital presentations “infinitely complicates and enlarges the strategies they have learned to ignore when they sit down to compose text.”
Very important to find a “legitimate rhetorical goal” before assigning video production.

Heather Ross
uses a PSA group project, students are producing cultural artifacts
collaborative environment
five weeks
Student excitement comes from competitiveness and seeing the videos as creative acts.

Todd Taylor
students in his class must complete community service work
1. intro case study of documentaries
2. “The second move addresses the rhetorical and technical aspects of each of the following media individually: HTML, texts, photographs, and audio; this sequence culminates with a consideration of the rhetorical and technical aspects of video, which combines all of the previous media. This pairing of technical proficiency and rhetorical savvy prepares students for integrating media in sophisticated ways.”
3. establish audience: judges of contest, classmates, public at competition
4. turn class into workshop

Conclusion
Digital production challenges multiple literacies, encourages collaboration, shows composition as a process, and requires more than a single person.

Authors note that the relationship of digital presentations to academic discourse remains problematic, as essays are still important collegiate exercises.

RrNm

{ 0 comments }

Rhetoric of Typography: Appropriateness

by Dr Davis on April 26, 2014

Brumberger, Eva. “The Rhetoric of Typography: The Awareness and Impact of Typeface Appropriateness.” Technical Communication 50.2 (May 2003): 224-31. Web. 1 February 2014.

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0evidence for the notion that typeface personas have impact (224)
typeface suitability studied (224)
typefaces vary in appropriateness based on text (225), study done by Haskins
typeface appropriateness based on sharing features with text (225), study done by Walker, Smith, and Livingston

UG students in intro psych course
gender potentially important variable
ethnicity, first language, internet usage, age, major collected
36 participants (18 male, 18 female) (226)
students had very clear preferences for appropriateness of typeface (226)
none of the demographic information that was usable (large enough sample) made a difference (227)
EXCEPT gender (229)

For the professional text males preferred the friendly font (Bouhaus) while women preferred the elegant font (CounselorScript).

People had strong views of appropriateness of typeface to text (230).
Typeface persona did not need to correlate with text persona (230).

{ 0 comments }

Cross-Cultural Use of Graphics: China v US

by Dr Davis on April 24, 2014

Qiuye, Wang. “A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Use of Graphics in Scientific and Technical Communication.” Technical Communication 47.4 (November 2000): 553-60. Web. 12 February 2014.

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Compares graphics’ usage in China (high-context culture) and US (low-context culture).

universality of graphics?

Maitra and Goswami (1995) looked at specifics in Japanese graphics

sources: “popular science magazines and instruction manuals for household products”
about Dolly (sheep cloning)

analyzed:
verbal-visual integration
information selected for graphics
techniques used to enhance usability

“American manuals have much better verbal-visual integration than the Chinese manuals.”

Visually heavier than words, pictures are usually used for emphasis. The graphics in the two sets of manual illustrations indicate a difference of emphasis, the American on task performance and the Chinese on product information.

“When presenting a new idea to general readers, the Chinese tend to provide more contextual information, while the Americans tend to be direct.”

Chinese culture = relational, holistic
American culture = problem-oriented, direct, explicit

in China, the norm to include technical information useful to repair person, but not owner/operator of equipment
So definitely keep the manuals if you are in China.

for Chinese audience, supply context and/or overview
for American audience, be focused

Quiye did not look at a lot of images, only eight total. However, they probably are fairly representative OR they fit the argument he/she wanted to make.

{ 0 comments }

Web 2.0 Collaboration in Bus Comm

by Dr Davis on April 19, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Beuchler, Scott. “Using Web 2.0 to Collaborate.” Business Communication Today 73 (2010): 439-43. Web. 15 January 2014.

Beuchler added a blog to the final report project, which is a collaborative assignment. Group photos, the class naming the blog, required postings, and the information for those posts were part of the assignment. Teams of students related by industries they examined were required to create a video, which was also posted to the blog. After five companies made it to the finals, based on classroom voting and recommendations, students had to read posts on the five companies and add a comment arguing for the company they would choose to support. Beuchler found that the blog facilitated group decision making, allowed students to demonstrate their ability to use technology, and reinforced the responsibility of ideas.

typingThis is a fairly simple addition to the final report project, but apparently Beuchler had great success with it. Following the work of Cardon and Okoro, however, it indicates a use of technology not common in the business world. However, despite Cardon and Okoro’s arguments, learning an additional technology–even if it is not used in work–can be a positive benefit as students recognize their ability to learn and use technology and can claim facility with it as a skill on their résumé.

When I first read the summary, I thought the article would be a waste of time. However, I have been considering creating a blog (on my own website) that students would have access to and could add the information that they create for the freshmen. Then I could offer my own students (and others) the opportunity to peruse the website and use the information they find there. That is still a possibility for implementation in spring 2014 and is certainly doable by fall 2014.

RrNm

{ 0 comments }

YouTube and Comm Ethics

by Dr Davis on April 18, 2014

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Lehman, Carol M., Debbie D. DuFrene, and Mark W. Lehman. “YouTube Video Project: A ‘Cool’ Way to Learn Communication Ethics.” Business Communication Quarterly 73 (2010): 444-49.

The article begins with the statement that businesses expect their business students to have been instructed in ethics. It then discusses the issue with studying case studies (irrelevant and boring) and argues that role playing, through the creation of a video on the case study, engages critical thinking and contributes to student enjoyment–which might increase learning (445). The assignment is to create a video on the case study that is to be part of the class’ (company’s) formal training on ethics. As a beginning point, students should learn the four behavior possibilities (illegal and unethical; legal, yet unethical; illegal, yet ethical; legal and ethical). Students decide on a communication rule and create a two- to four-minute video giving a realistic roleplaying of breaking that rule. Five points about videos that students might not know should be explained. 1) Short and simple. 2) Avoid gimmicks and too much movement. 3) Have good audio. 4) Choose appropriate clothing, avoiding patterns and bright colors. 5) Edit the video to eliminate errors. Inviting judges to watch and score the videos is recommended (446). Also having a premier is recommended.

This article refers to YouTube as “cutting-edge social media” (444). I think this is a mistake, even for 2010, though it is certainly not true in 2014. In 2014 Instagram would be the cutting-edge social media. However, YouTube is a viable and–dare I say–revered channel for students. Certainly a premier gives the appearance of importance, which is why I have done this with my fyc classes. The points for teaching about videos are good–though most of my students don’t make those mistakes anyway.

I think that when I have a B&P Writing class that is larger instituting this might be a good idea. I dropped the ethics assignment because they have a course in ethics in their major (business related) and I couldn’t do anything substantially better or different. This, however, might qualify.

RrNm

{ 0 comments }

Teaching New Media Responsibly

by Dr Davis on April 12, 2014

Veltsos, Jennifer R. and Christophe Veltsos. “Teaching Responsibly with Technology-mediated Communication.” Business Communication Quarterly 73.4 (December 2010): 463-67.

steampunk_archive_icon_by_yereverluvinuncleber-d5jsav0Privacy rules require that students not be forced to disclose certain personal information. Some students are at risk if they are required to create a website, or whatever, so be prepared to allow the creation of a sock puppet (464).

Remind students of the permanence of the internet. Tweets are now archived with the Library of Congress (465).

Discuss the usability of online sources and how it can constitute plagiarism (465). –Educational use only is allowed, but if we post these anywhere else, then we are infringing on someone else’s copyright. This is important to note if they are planning to post a video to YouTube. … Discuss how audio and visuals can be found that are creative commons and/or public domain.

Performance feedback must be kept private (466). So don’t comment on the video or the blog post if it is in the general internet –or even if it is behind a school wall. Others within the school can still see it.

These are good points to remember.

{ 0 comments }